Establishing Sole and Separate Property in Arizona: A Guide for Divorcing Couples

Feature Article: Understanding Sole and Separate Property in Arizona

The Complexity of Separating Property during a Divorce

Going through a divorce can be one of the most stressful and emotional times of a person's life. It's a time where everything that was once shared between two people has to be separated, including property and debt. In Arizona, community property laws state that any property or debt acquired during the time of marriage is shared equally between both parties. However, there are exceptions to this rule with regards to separate property, which makes the process of dividing assets during a divorce even more complicated.

What is Sole and Separate Property?

In Arizona, community property laws mean that most property and debts acquired during a marriage are shared equally. However, separate property, which includes any assets owned before the marriage, gifts, and inheritances, typically remains with the individual who owns it. The process of distinguishing separate property from marital assets requires careful consideration and clear evidence. Sole and separate property is any property that is solely owned by one spouse, either before or after the date of marriage. This property remains separate and is not subject to division during a divorce unless it has been commingled with marital property.

Understanding Commingled Property

Commingling occurs when separate property is mixed with community property. When this happens, it can be challenging to distinguish which property is separate and which is marital. For example, if one spouse receives an inheritance and puts the money into a joint bank account with the other spouse, the inheritance can be considered commingled and subject to division during a divorce. It's essential to keep separate property separate from community property to avoid commingling. The best way to do this is to keep separate assets in a separate account in the individual's name. It's also important to avoid using community funds to maintain or pay off separate property.

Factors to Consider When Identifying Sole and Separate Property

Identifying sole and separate property can be a complicated process, and it's essential to get professional help. There are factors to consider when identifying sole and separate property, including:


The timing of when the property was acquired plays an important role in determining whether it is separate or community property. For example, if an individual owns a property before getting married, it is considered separate property. However, if the property is acquired during the marriage, it is considered community property, even if only one husband's name is on the deed.


The intention of the spouse acquiring the property plays a significant role in determining whether it is separate or community property. For example, if an individual acquires property during the marriage but uses separate funds to purchase it and takes steps to keep it separate, it can be classified as separate property.

Use of the Property

The use of the property before, during, and after the marriage also plays an important role in determining whether it is separate or community property. For example, if a couple purchases a vacation home during the marriage but only one spouse uses it, the property can be considered separate property.


If spouses sign a prenuptial or postnuptial agreement that identifies what property is community or separate, the agreement is legally binding in Arizona.

Gifts and Inheritances

Gifts and inheritances that are given only to one spouse are considered separate property. However, if the gift or inheritance is commingled with community property, it can be considered community property.

Business Interests

Business interests can be complicated to divide and classify in a divorce. It's essential to have an accurate valuation of the business and determine whether the business was established before the marriage. Any part of a business that was established during the marriage is generally considered community property.

Retirement Benefits and Pensions

Retirement benefits and pensions can be considered community property in a divorce, even if they were earned by only one spouse during the marriage.


It is essential to understand the complexities of separating property during a divorce. Identifying what is community or separate property can be a challenging process. Seeking professional help from a qualified attorney can ensure a fair and equitable division of assets and liabilities. If you're going through a divorce or considering one, it's crucial to understand how sole and separate property is established in Arizona. Contact us today to schedule a consultation with one of our experienced attorneys. Establish Sole and Separate Property in Arizona-Sole,Community

How Military Status Can Impact Child Custody and Parenting Time

Feature Article

How Deployments Affect Child Custody and Parenting Time

When military personnel are deployed, their family back home is left to deal with a range of challenges, including child custody and parenting time. In Arizona, family law is designed to factor in the impact of deployment on child custody decisions, ensuring that children are always protected. This article will walk you through the most important things to know when it comes to how military status and deployment affect child custody and parenting time in Arizona.

The Legal Perspective: Deployments and Child Custody

In Arizona, the rights of military personnel serving our country are protected by the Servicemembers Civil Relief Act (SCRA), which was passed in 2003 to ensure that deployable servicemembers are not subject to undue stress and legal challenges. With regards to child custody, the Arizona Revised Statutes 25-411 states that if a military parent is ordered to deploy, then the court must ensure that the custody arrangements put in place before the deployment adequately protect the child’s best interests.

While deployments should not be the sole factor in modifying custody arrangements, they may still require temporary changes. The key is to ensure that the child’s needs are always prioritized. When a military parent is deployed, a family care plan must be put in place that provides a detailed outline of how the child will be cared for during the parent’s absence. This plan may include identifying a temporary guardian who can look after the child while the military parent is deployed.

It is worth noting that under Arizona law, even if a military parent is unable to exercise their parenting time due to deployment, the court cannot take that into account in its decision about legal decision-making or parenting time in the future. This ensures that a deployed military parent remains on equal legal footing with the other parent when it comes to child custody decisions.

Temporary Changes to Custody Arrangements During Deployment

Deployment can be a long and unpredictable process, which is why temporary changes to the custody arrangements may be necessary to ensure that the child’s needs are met. These changes may include:

  • Designating a new temporary primary caregiver while the parent is deployed
  • Establishing an order for electronic communication between the military parent and the child
  • Adjusting the parenting time schedule to acknowledge the military parent’s absence

It is recommended that when drafting a temporary custody order, the court should consider the following:

  • The parent’s job description, deployment history, and likelihood of being deployed in the future
  • The distance between the parent’s duty station and the child’s residence
  • The child’s age, needs, and temperament
  • The availability of alternative caregivers for the child
  • Any other relevant factors that might impact the child’s best interest

The Family Care Plan: A Key Part of Deployment Preparation

The family care plan is a critical component of deployment preparation for military parents. It provides detailed instructions for how to care for a child in the event that the primary parent is deployed or otherwise unavailable. When deploying, a military parent must include a family care plan in their service record. The plan must be reviewed and approved by the parent’s commanding officer, and it must contain the following information:

  • The name and contact information of the temporary caregiver(s)
  • Instructions for how to contact the deploying parent
  • A detailed schedule of the child's daily routine
  • A list of the child's medical needs
  • A list of the child’s dietary needs and preferences
  • Instructions for the child’s school and extracurricular activities
  • Any other relevant information that might impact the child’s well-being

It is essential that a family care plan is comprehensive and detailed because the temporary caregiver may be responsible for the child for an extended period, sometimes up to a year or more.

Conclusion: Protecting the Best Interest of the Child

Military service is a duty that requires bravery, dedication, and sacrifice, and it should never be an obstacle to protecting the best interests of the child. In Arizona, the laws are designed to ensure that deployment and military status do not unfairly impact child custody and parenting time. It is essential that military parents take the time to draft a detailed family care plan and work with experienced family law attorneys to ensure that their rights are protected.

If you want to learn more about how military status affects child custody and parenting time in Arizona, visit


The Financial Implications of Legal Separation

Feature Article: Understanding the Financial Impacts of Legal Separation

Legal separation is a serious matter that can have significant impacts on your finances. It is essential to consider all the financial aspects before making any decisions. Separation without proper planning can result in long-term negative effects on your financial stability. In this article, we will discuss the financial impacts of legal separation.

The Financial Impacts of Legal Separation

Legal separation may have the following financial impacts:

Division of Property

In a legal separation, the court will divide property, assets, and debts between the two spouses. The court will consider various factors such as the length of the marriage, the economic condition of both spouses, and the standard of living before the separation. Property division can be a complicated and contentious issue in a separation. Hence, it is essential to hire an experienced attorney to handle property division to make sure that your best interests are protected.

Spousal Support

Spousal support or alimony is a payment made by one spouse to the other to support them financially in a separation or divorce. The court considers various factors such as the duration of the marriage, the earning capacity of the spouse seeking support, and the standard of living before the separation. The goal of spousal support is to ensure that the lower-earning spouse continues to maintain a similar standard of living until they are able to become self-sufficient.

Child Support

Child support is a payment made from one parent to another for the financial support of the children. The court will determine the amount of child support based on various factors such as the needs of the children, the income of both parents, and the number of children involved. Child support payments can continue until the children reach the age of majority or the court orders otherwise.

Tax Implications

Legal separation can have significant tax implications, especially with regards to spousal and child support payments. Spousal support is tax-deductible for the payer and taxable income for the recipient. Child support, on the other hand, is not tax-deductible or taxable income. It is essential to consult with a tax professional to understand the tax implications of legal separation.

Health Insurance

Health insurance is a critical consideration in legal separation. If the couple was covered by one spouse's health insurance, legal separation can result in the loss of health insurance coverage for the other spouse. Hence, it is essential to understand the health insurance coverage options during a legal separation.

Credit Scores

Legal separation can also have impacts on individual credit scores. If the couple had joint credit accounts, both parties are responsible for payments. A failure to pay can negatively impact both parties' credit scores. Hence, it is essential to discuss and separate joint accounts to protect individual credit scores.

Retirement Savings

Retirement savings is an important consideration during legal separation. The court may consider retirement savings as part of property division. It is essential to consider the tax implications of dividing retirement savings.


Legal separation can be a complex process with significant financial implications. It is essential to consult with an experienced attorney to understand the options and create a plan that protects your best interests. Understanding the financial impacts of legal separation can help you plan your finances and make informed decisions.

Legal Separation and its Financial Impacts-

Get to Know Attorney Alysa Hudson and Her Legal Experience

Type of Article: Profile Article

The Legal Battles of Alysa Hudson


Have you ever wondered about the inspiration and drive of successful lawyers? In the case of Alysa Hudson, her passion for fighting legal battles was kindled at a young age. Here's a profile on her journey from being a bystander in her family's legal disputes to becoming a successful attorney, ready to take on the world.

The Early Legal Battles

As mentioned in the blog post, Alysa's first brush with the legal system was when she was just twelve years old. Her family's businesses were tangled in numerous lawsuits that lasted over two decades. As a young observer, Alysa saw firsthand the emotional, mental, and financial toll that these legal battles took on her family. These experiences had a profound impact on her and planted the seed for her future career as an attorney.

The Quest for Legal Knowledge

Alysa's determination to pursue a career in law meant that she had to work hard to acquire the necessary knowledge and education. After completing her undergraduate degree, she attended law school at the University of Akron. During her time at law school, she participated in a wide range of activities, including advocacy programs, research, and writing activities.

Early Career

Upon graduation, Alysa started working as a law clerk for Judge James G. Carr in the United States District Court for the Northern District of Ohio. Here, she gained valuable legal experience, and her interest in litigation deepened. Later, she moved on to work as an associate attorney at a law firm in Akron, Ohio. Here she developed her skills in advocacy, trial preparation, and litigation.

Legal Work and Accomplishments

Alysa's legal work focuses mainly on litigation and appellate matters. Some of her recent cases include a noteworthy class-action lawsuit against a global healthcare company and a significant victory in the Ohio Supreme Court. She has also written extensively on a wide range of legal subjects, including privacy issues, class action lawsuits, and employment discrimination cases.

Personal Life

Apart from her legal work, Alysa Hudson is an avid traveler, reader, and hiker. She is committed to leading a balanced life, and her personal interests keep her grounded and energized. Her strong relationships with her family and friends are also an essential part of her life.

The Future

Alysa Hudson's accomplishments in the legal field are impressive. However, she is not one to rest on her laurels. She's looking forward to taking on new challenges and cases, particularly those that involve complex litigation and appeals. Her dedication and commitment to the legal system, coupled with her intelligence and passion, make her a formidable legal force to be reckoned with.


Alysa Hudson's commitment and passion for law are clear. From her early experiences with legal battles to her current position as an accomplished attorney, every step along the way has deepened her knowledge and love for the legal system. She is a true inspiration for those who aspire to work in law.
To know more about Alysa Hudson, please visit her profile page: Alysa Hudson-Attorney, Legal


Haunted by a DUI: What to Do After Getting a Halloween DUI Charge

Celebrations and Consequences - Reflecting on a Halloween DUI Charge

As Halloween approaches, people start planning their festive costumes, decorations, and parties. Whether trick-or-treating with kids or attending adult Halloween parties, many people incorporate alcohol into their celebrations. However, drinking alcohol and operating a vehicle can lead to severe consequences, such as DUI charges.

A Story of Halloween Gone Wrong

Imagine dressing up as your favorite superhero character and going out with friends for a night of Halloween fun. You decided to get a little tipsy at a costume party, thinking you could handle driving yourself home. However, on your way back, the police pulled you over, suspecting you of drunk driving. Despite your explanations and denials, they administered a breathalyzer test and arrested you for DUI charges.

Now you face various legal and social repercussions of your Halloween DUI charge. You have to deal with the consequences of your actions, including legal fines, license suspension, mandatory traffic school, and possible jail time. Also, your reputation and relationships with family, friends, and colleagues may suffer, considering the stigma and scrutiny of DUI charges.

Unfortunately, your story is not unique, as many people face Halloween DUI charges each year. Hence, it is essential to understand the potential consequences of drinking and driving, especially on Halloween, and take preventive measures.

The Impact of a Halloween DUI Charge

Getting a DUI charge on Halloween can lead to various legal, financial, and personal consequences:

1. Legal Consequences

Getting arrested for DUI on Halloween could result in several legal consequences, including fines, license suspension, mandatory traffic school, probation, jail time, and vehicle impoundment. The severity of the penalties depends on several factors, such as blood alcohol concentration (BAC), previous DUI convictions, injuries or fatalities caused, and underage drinking.

2. Financial Consequences

Apart from legal fines and fees, a Halloween DUI charge could lead to other financial consequences, such as higher insurance rates, attorney fees, rehabilitation programs, and work loss due to court appearances or probation requirements. Also, being charged with DUI could limit your career opportunities, as employers may hesitate to hire or keep employees with criminal records.

3. Personal Consequences

DUI charges could have significant personal consequences, such as damaging your reputation, straining your relationships, and affecting your mental and emotional well-being. You may feel ashamed, guilty, or anxious about your DUI arrest, and these feelings may affect your decision-making, self-esteem, and social interactions. Also, your loved ones may lose trust or respect for you, and you may have to face the consequences of your actions for a long time.

Preventing a Halloween DUI Charge

While DUI charges could lead to various consequences, they are preventable. Here are some tips to help you avoid a Halloween DUI charge:

1. Arrange for Alternative Transportation

If you plan to drink on Halloween, make sure to arrange for alternative transportation beforehand. Consider using ride-sharing services, public transportation, or designated drivers to get to your destination and return safely. Avoid driving under the influence, as it endangers your life and the lives of others on the road.

2. Limit Your Alcohol Consumption

While alcohol is an integral part of Halloween celebrations for many adults, it is essential to limit your intake and drink responsibly. Avoid binge drinking or mixing alcohol with drugs, as it could lead to impairment or unawareness of your actions. Instead, choose low-alcohol beverages, alternate with water or non-alcoholic drinks, and avoid drinking on an empty stomach.

3. Stay Alert and Aware of Your Surroundings

When attending a Halloween party or event, stay alert and aware of your surroundings. Keep an eye on your drinks and avoid leaving them unattended or sharing them with strangers. Avoid confrontations or arguments with others, as they could escalate into violence or criminal charges. Also, be mindful of the legal and social consequences of your actions, and avoid behavior that could lead to DUI charges.

The Importance of Accountability and Responsibility

Ultimately, preventing Halloween DUI charges requires personal accountability and responsibility. Each individual must recognize the potential consequences of their actions and take steps to avoid them. Halloween celebrations can be fun and exciting, but they should not lead to reckless behavior or criminal charges. By staying responsible and accountable, we can have a safe and enjoyable Halloween and avoid the haunting memories of a Halloween DUI charge.

If you or someone you know is struggling with a Halloween DUI charge in the. Phoenix area, Arja Shah Law can help. Visit their website to learn more about DUI charges, legal services, and accountability resources.


Understanding Plea Deals in Arizona Criminal Cases: Pros, Cons, Consequences


Understanding Plea Deals in Arizona Criminal Cases: Pros, Cons, & Consequences

Investigative Article: Understanding the Pros and Cons of Accepting a Plea Bargain in an Arizona Criminal Case

When facing a criminal case in Arizona, one of the options available to defendants is to accept a plea bargain. This is a negotiation between the prosecution and the defense in which the defendant agrees to plead guilty or no contest to a lesser charge or to a reduced sentence in exchange for certain concessions from the prosecution. While plea bargains can result in a lighter sentence or other benefits for defendants, they also come with significant risks and drawbacks that must be carefully considered. In this investigative article, we will explore the pros and cons of accepting a plea bargain in an Arizona criminal case.

The Types of Plea Deals in Arizona

Before we dive into the pros and cons of plea bargains, it's important to understand the different types of pleas available in Arizona criminal cases. The three main types of pleas are guilty, no contest, and not guilty. When a defendant enters a guilty plea, they admit to the charges against them, while a no contest plea means they do not admit guilt but also do not contest the charges. A plea of not guilty means the defendant denies the charges and the case goes to trial.

The Pros of Plea Bargains

One of the main advantages of accepting a plea bargain is that it can result in a lighter sentence than the defendant might receive if they went to trial and were found guilty. This can be especially important in cases where the evidence against the defendant is strong and the potential consequences of a conviction are severe.

Another advantage of accepting a plea bargain is that it can save time and resources for both the prosecution and the defense. Trials can be lengthy and costly, and accepting a plea bargain can help to expedite the resolution of the case.

Finally, plea bargains can also offer defendants more control over the outcome of their case. By negotiating a plea deal, defendants can have some input into the terms of their sentence and can have more certainty about the outcome of the case than if it were to go to trial.

The Cons of Plea Bargains

One of the main drawbacks of accepting a plea bargain is that it requires the defendant to give up certain rights and protections. When a defendant accepts a plea deal, they are waiving their right to a trial by jury and their right to appeal the conviction, among other rights.

Another potential downside of plea bargains is that they can result in a criminal record for the defendant, even if they are able to avoid a more severe sentence. This can have long-term consequences for the defendant's career, housing, and social life, among other areas.

Finally, accepting a plea bargain can also have negative psychological effects on the defendant, who may feel that they are admitting guilt to a crime they did not commit or facing social stigma as a result of their plea.

Consequences for the Defense When Accepting a Plea Bargain

There are several consequences that defendants should be aware of when considering whether to accept a plea bargain. One of the most significant is that accepting a plea bargain can result in a criminal record, which can impact the defendant's ability to find employment, housing, or even to obtain a loan.

Another consequence of accepting a plea bargain is that it can result in mandatory sentencing requirements, such as community service or probation. While these requirements may be less severe than those in a trial, they still require a significant commitment of time and resources from the defendant.

Rejecting a Plea Bargain and Your Next Steps

While plea bargains are often presented as the best option for defendants, it's important to remember that accepting a plea bargain is not always the right decision. If the evidence against the defendant is weak, or if there are other factors that make the case difficult to prove, it may be in the defendant's best interests to reject the plea bargain and proceed to trial.

If a defendant decides to reject a plea bargain, their next steps will depend on the specifics of their case. They may wish to hire a criminal defense attorney to help them prepare for trial and to mount a strong defense. In some cases, it may be possible to negotiate a better plea bargain or to have the charges dropped altogether.

Frequently Asked Questions

Here are some common questions that individuals facing a criminal case in Arizona may have about plea bargains:

  1. Can I still get a plea bargain if the evidence against me is strong?
  2. What are my rights if I accept a plea bargain?
  3. Can I appeal a plea bargain?
  4. Will accepting a plea bargain affect my ability to vote or own a firearm?

How a Criminal Defense Attorney Can Help

If you are facing a criminal case in Arizona and are considering accepting a plea bargain, it's important to consult with an experienced criminal defense attorney. An attorney can help you evaluate the pros and cons of accepting a plea bargain, negotiate the terms of the deal, and ensure that your rights are protected throughout the process. With the right attorney by your side, you can make informed decisions about your case and minimize the negative consequences of a criminal conviction.

If you need legal advice or representation for a criminal case in Arizona, contact Kolsrud Law Offices today. Our experienced criminal defense attorneys can help you understand your legal options and fight to protect your rights and freedoms.

Arizona Plea Bargain-Defense Attorney

Comparing Penalties: Federal Drug Trafficking vs. Illegal Drug Importation

Federal Drug Trafficking vs. Illegal Drug Importation: Understanding the Differences and Consequences

When it comes to drug offenses in the United States, two of the most serious charges are drug trafficking and illegal drug importation. While the two may seem similar, they actually involve different laws, penalties, and legal implications. In this article, we will explore the differences between these two charges, as well as their potential consequences and the role of federal and state laws in drug-related offenses.

Understanding Drug Trafficking under Arizona and Federal Law

Drug trafficking is a serious offense that involves the sale, distribution, or transportation of illicit drugs, often in large quantities or across state or national borders. Under Arizona law, drug trafficking is typically charged as a Class 2 felony, which can carry a prison sentence of up to 12.5 years, depending on the type and amount of drugs involved.

However, drug trafficking can also be charged at the federal level, which involves a different set of laws and penalties. The federal government considers drug trafficking to be a major threat to public safety, and has enacted a number of strict laws aimed at curbing drug-related offenses, including the Controlled Substances Act (CSA), the Anti-Drug Abuse Act, and the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA).

Under federal law, drug trafficking is a felony offense that can carry significant prison sentences, depending on the type and amount of drugs involved, as well as other factors such as the defendant's criminal history and involvement in other drug-related activities. For example, a first-time offender convicted of trafficking more than 5 kilograms of cocaine can face a mandatory minimum sentence of 10 years to life in prison, while someone convicted of trafficking more than 1,000 kilograms of marijuana can face a sentence of 10 years to life or even the death penalty in certain cases.

Deciphering Illegal Drug Importation Laws in the U.S.

Illegal drug importation involves the transportation or smuggling of illicit drugs into the United States from other countries, often with the aim of distributing or selling the drugs domestically. This is a serious offense that carries stiff penalties, as well as potential consequences such as deportation or ineligibility for certain visas or other benefits.

The laws surrounding illegal drug importation are complex and involve a number of different agencies and regulations, including the DEA, Customs and Border Protection (CBP), and the Department of Justice (DOJ). Some of the key laws and regulations related to illegal drug importation include the Controlled Substances Act, the Tariff Act, the Combat Methamphetamine Act, and the Border Patrol Agent Pay Reform Act, among others.

Comparing Penalties: Drug Trafficking and Illegal Drug Importation

While drug trafficking and illegal drug importation may seem similar, they actually involve different laws, penalties, and legal implications. In general, illegal drug importation is considered a more serious offense than drug trafficking, as it often involves the transport of large quantities of drugs across international borders, which can implicate federal agencies such as the CBP and DOJ. Penalties for illegal drug importation can range from fines and imprisonment to deportation and ineligibility for certain visas or other benefits.

In contrast, drug trafficking charges typically involve the sale, distribution, or transportation of illicit drugs within a certain state or region, and are often subject to state laws and penalties. While drug trafficking charges can still carry significant prison sentences and fines, the penalties are generally less severe than those associated with illegal drug importation.

The Role of the Controlled Substances Act in Drug-Related Offenses

The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) is a federal law that regulates the manufacture, distribution, and use of certain drugs, including marijuana, cocaine, and heroin, among others. The CSA categorizes drugs into five different schedules, based on their potential for abuse and dependence, as well as their accepted medical uses. The more dangerous and addictive a drug is, the more likely it is to be classified as a Schedule I drug, which carries the most stringent regulations and penalties.

The CSA plays a significant role in drug-related offenses, as it provides the legal framework for many drug-related laws, including drug trafficking and illegal drug importation. The CSA also sets penalties for drug-related offenses, and provides guidelines for federal agencies such as the DEA and CBP to enforce drug-related laws and regulations.

How Arizona's Drug Threshold Limits Influence Sentencing

One important aspect of drug-related offenses in Arizona is the concept of "threshold amounts," which are the minimum amounts of certain drugs that must be involved in a drug-related offense in order for the offense to be charged as a trafficking offense. In general, trafficking offenses involve larger amounts of drugs than possession or distribution offenses, and can carry more severe penalties.

For example, in Arizona, the threshold amount for cocaine is 9 grams, while the threshold amount for methamphetamine is 9 grams. In cases involving these amounts or more, the offense is typically charged as a trafficking offense, which carries more severe penalties than a possession or distribution offense. However, it's important to note that threshold amounts are not the only factor that can influence sentencing in drug-related offenses, and other factors such as the defendant's criminal history, involvement in other drug-related activities, and the presence of firearms or other weapons can also play a role.

Interstate and International Implications of Drug Trafficking and Importation

Drug trafficking and illegal drug importation can have serious legal implications both within the United States and beyond its borders. For example, drug trafficking charges involving the transport of drugs across state or national borders can implicate federal laws and agencies, and may involve the cooperation of foreign governments and law enforcement agencies. Similarly, illegal drug importation charges can involve international treaties and agreements, and may involve a complex web of legal and political considerations.

The Importance of Legal Representation in Drug-Related Offenses

If you or someone you know has been charged with drug trafficking or illegal drug importation, it's important to seek legal representation as soon as possible. Drug-related offenses can carry stiff penalties and have significant legal and personal consequences, and navigating the complex laws and regulations related to these offenses can be challenging without the help of an experienced attorney.

At Kolsrud Law Offices, we specialize in representing clients in drug-related offenses, and have a proven track record of achieving positive outcomes for our clients. Our experienced attorneys can help you understand your legal options, develop a strong defense strategy, and work tirelessly to protect your rights and interests both in and out of the courtroom.


Drug trafficking and illegal drug importation are serious offenses that can carry significant legal and personal consequences. Understanding the differences between these charges, as well as the laws and regulations that govern them, is essential for protecting your rights and interests if you or someone you know has been charged with these offenses. With the help of an experienced attorney, you can navigate the complex legal landscape of drug-related offenses and work towards a positive outcome in your case.

Drug Trafficking-Illegal Federal

Navigating the Sale or Trade of Your Ex-Spouse's Car in Arizona's Community Property State

How to Navigate the Sale or Trade of Your Ex-Spouse’s Car in Arizona

Divorce can be one of the most challenging and devastating experiences a person can go through. Along with emotional distress, divorce often involves complicated legal proceedings, property division disputes, and unforeseen financial challenges. One of the most significant assets to consider when divorcing is a shared vehicle.

Understanding Community Property in Arizona

Arizona is a community property state, which means that any property acquired during the marriage is generally considered community property and must be divided equitably upon divorce. Per Arizona Revised Statute § 25-211, community property includes any property acquired by either spouse during the marriage, except for gifts and inheritances.

It means that if you purchased a car during your marriage, it is most likely community property, and both you and your ex-spouse have equal rights to it, including the right to possess, use, or sell it. Consequently, when navigating the sale or trade of your ex-spouse’s car, both parties must reach an agreement.

Tips for Navigating the Sale or Trade of Your Ex-Spouse’s Car

1. Find out the Value of the Car

The first step to determine how to divide custom property is to ascertain the value of the car. There are several ways to determine a car's value, including online valuation tools like Kelley Blue Book, dealerships, or even private sales.

Finding out the value of the car can help you make informed decisions when dividing assets. For instance, if the car is worth $3,000, you may consider either selling the car and splitting the money or allowing one party to keep the car while offsetting its value with other assets.

2. Discuss Ownership

Before selling or trading a car, it is essential to determine who owns the car. If you both co-signed for the car, you are both owners, and either of you can sell it on their own. However, if only one of you is the legal owner, they must give legal authorization for the sale to be valid.

If you are both owners, discuss who wants to keep the car and who wants to sell it. You may need to compromise and consider other assets' division, such as stocks, bonds, or investment accounts.

3. Negotiate a Deal

Once you have decided who owns the car and its value, it is time to negotiate a deal that satisfies both parties. The agreement may include how the sale proceeds will be divided, or one of you will keep the car while the other party gets something of equal value.

Remember to put the agreement in writing and sign it to make it legally binding. It can be a simple contract detailing the terms of the agreement, including the sale price, how the proceeds will be divided, and the date of the sale.

4. Consider Trading the Car-In

If you cannot agree on the sale of the car, consider trading it in for another car. Trading in a car can be an easier solution than selling it, and you both can benefit from it. Discuss with a car dealership that buys cars if they are interested in your car, and once you agree on the trade-in value, the dealership would buy the car from you and offset the price of the new vehicle you wish to purchase.

5. Seek Legal Help

In some cases, dividing assets during divorce proceedings can be overwhelming and complex. If you are having trouble agreeing on car ownership or how to divide its value, you should seek the help of a legal professional. A lawyer can provide objective guidance and help you negotiate an agreement that satisfies both parties.


Dividing custom property like a car can be a challenging process during divorce proceedings, and it is essential to consider the right approach to navigate the sale or trade of your ex-spouse’s vehicle. Understanding Arizona's community property laws, finding out the car's value, negotiating an agreement, and seeking legal help can make the process less stressful and smoother.

For more information on navigating the sale or trade of your ex-spouse’s car, please visit De Novo Law Firm.


DUI on a Horse: Understanding Arizona's Laws on Riding Under the Influence

Can You Get a DUI While Riding a Horse?

Imagine you're galloping through the vast, picturesque Arizona countryside on your trusty steed, and you reach for your flask. The alcohol coursing through your veins will inevitably make your riding experience more thrilling, but it begs the question - can you get a DUI while riding a horse in Arizona?

Arizona’s Legal Vocabulary

Arizona state laws are stringent when it comes to DUI laws, and the legal vocabulary plays a crucial role in determining the verdict. According to Arizona's definition, a "motor vehicle" is any vehicle that operates using an engine. Consequently, driving under the influence (DUI) laws that prohibit driving a car, truck, or motorcycle do not apply to horseback riders.

No DUI Charges for Horse Riders

Suppose an individual is riding their horse under the influence and their blood alcohol content (BAC) crosses the legal limit of 0.08%. In that case, they will not face DUI charges under Arizona's motor vehicle laws.

However, it's essential to note that the same legal protection does not apply to other forms of transportation, such as bikes or even wheelbarrows. That's right - even a person pushing their wheelbarrow down the street while intoxicated could be charged with a DUI.

Other Challenges for Horseback Riders Under the Influence

Although horseback riders may not face DUI charges, there are still several challenges they may encounter while riding under the influence. For instance, it takes a significant amount of skill and coordination to control a horse, and alcohol can impair these abilities. An intoxicated rider may lose their balance, misjudge speed, or be unable to control their horse, leading to accidents.

Furthermore, intoxicated riders may also find themselves facing charges of animal cruelty. Any Arizona resident who owns or cares for an animal is responsible for ensuring their welfare. A horse could be considered neglected or abused if the owner puts it in danger by riding it under the influence.


In conclusion, Arizona's DUI laws are explicit when it comes to defining motor vehicles, where horseback riding falls under the category of non-motor vehicle transportation. However, it's crucial to remember that riding a horse while intoxicated could still lead to legal problems, including charges of animal cruelty, and more importantly, it's incredibly dangerous. Always prioritize your safety and the safety of the animal by abstaining from alcohol before horseback riding.

Arizona DUI Laws for Horseback Riders